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AN INDEPENDENT VOICE FOR NURSING
Toward a Mid-Range Theory of Nursing Presence
Michelle A. McMahon, MSN, RN, and Kimberly A. Christopher, PhD, RN, OCN Michelle A. McMahon, MSN, RN, is a Student in the PhD in Nursing Program, College of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA; Kimberly A. Christopher, PhD, RN, OCN, is Associate Professor, College of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA. Keywords Nursing presence, mid-range theory, nurse education, relational skills Correspondence Michelle A. McMahon, MSN, RN, Student in the PhD in Nursing Program, College of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND. Presence is widely accepted as a core relational skill within the nursing profession. Nurse educators are challenged to ensure that the humanistic aspects of client care are included in the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) curriculum. Introducing and teaching presence skills early in the BSN curriculum will ensure the essential value of relational engagement with clients. Nursing literature, however, notes presence is a challenging concept for BSN students. Articulating a midrange theory of nursing presence will facilitate students’ conceptual understanding of presence and guide nurse educators to teach presence skills. AIMS. To propose a mid-range theory of nursing presence. Within the theoretical model, identify development opportunities to improve student nurse use of presence as a relational skill. METHODS. An extensive literature review was conducted. Materials were synthesized and the mid-range theory was developed. DISCUSSION. Kim’s nurse-client domain provided the perspective that guided the parameters of the theory. Professional nursing presence is dependent upon the combination of ﬁve variables: individual nurse characteristics, individual client characteristics, shared characteristics within the...